Glossary - Goaltending (See Skill Analysis)

    • Goaltender Equipment:  Generally speaking, basic goaltender equipment will be supplied by the team or local “Minor” Lacrosse “Association” that a player plays for, with specific attention given to ensuring that the goalies are sized properly and safely.  As mentioned briefly in regards to equipment “fitting,” the importance of being properly protected is essential for all players; and with goalies this means from head to toe.  Players who are much smaller or larger in size than the average of their particular age group should speak with their local association about exchanging their equipment for a better fit. 
    • The controversial issue surrounding goaltender equipment is the temptation to use equipment that fits too large, in an attempt to “cover as much net as possible.” There are three major reasons that this temptation should be avoided. First and foremost, player safety; over-sized equipment tends to leave gaps around the collarbone, armpits and elbows (see injuries). Second, it is an "illegal equipment" penalty if a goalie’s equipment doesn’t conform to the shape of their body, nor adhere to the limits set-forth by the CLA (Canadian Lacrosse Association) on how far it can protrude off the body (3 inches maximum). Lastly, over-sized chest protectors/arm pads drastically inhibit the movement of goaltenders (especially younger ones), which consequently takes away from their ability to pass the ball (transition) after a save (both accurately and at a distance); also inhibiting leg manoeuvrability. It is important that coaches don’t let "game misconducts," weak self-efficacy and/or lack of mental focus trump actual real skill development in their goaltenders.
    • There are certainly some unique aspects to goaltender equipment that players and coaches need to be aware of. Goalie equipment generally includes: a hockey goalie helmet (CSA approved with a throat protector), a chest protector and arm pads (usually one-piece; box-specific), goalie pants (hockey pants are acceptable for ages peewee and younger), a goalie jock (with extra lower abdomen protection), leg pads (box-specific), goalie gloves (box-specific) and athletic shoes (safety toed shoes are also permissible).
    • In terms of fitting, goalie pants should hang to just above one’s knee caps, and after the age of “peewee” it is recommended that they be the box-specific version, which offers more protection around the back and kidneys of the goalie. Leg pads should come about a half way up the thigh, pertaining to leg height appropriation; some goalies also wear knee pads underneath their leg pads to protect them while in a butterfly position. Be sure that one’s throat protector, leg pad straps and toe flaps stay in place at all times during play (use electrical or plastic tape where needed), otherwise informing the referee of the need for equipment repair (see stopping momentum).
    • Goalie Stick/Goalie “Knob”/Stick “Spinning”:  The “goalie stick” has a much larger “head” and a considerably longer “shaft” than a player’s stick; with a maximum head width permitted to be 15 inches (see stick “check”) and stick length being of no discernible maximum.  The reason that the goalie stick is generally much longer is because of its need to extend from “flush” on the ground (the mouth) to up behind the goalie’s shoulder (“butt end”), which also tends to inadvertently stop shots to the top corner and also act as a lever while manipulating the stick as a whole.  
    • Goalie shafts can be either titanium, composite or wood, with goalies developing preferred methods for taping the “shaft” and butt-end of the stick, and most also taping a big “goalie knob” (taped handle) near the “throat” of the stick as well (to help take up more space in the “five-hole”). A knob at the throat is an “illegal equipment” penalty should it exceed one inch in its radius from the shaft, and it also makes the stick harder to throw with (changing its balance).
    • Amongst the various styles of goalie heads there are some major differences (each with advantages and disadvantages), namely to do with size (shape), weight, durability and cost. The synthetic (field lacrosse style) two-piece goalie stick is round, notorious for its light weight, ease for passing and maintaining (see stick stringing). There are also triangle-shaped synthetic two-piece goalie sticks which are significantly larger (creating more surface area in contact with the ground) and help reduce the tendency of the stick to “spin” when hit by a shot (with the ball potentially going into the net).
    • The downfall of synthetic (plastic) sticks in general lies in their durability and susceptibility to breaking when hit by a hard shot or slash. Whereas, the traditional one-piece wood goalie stick is much heavier, harder to handle and more difficult to maintain, but also the most durable, most resistant to “spinning” and regarded by many as the best for taking up the space between the five-hole.
    • Goalies will ultimately determine their own preference through the use of various stick styles, taping and stringing methods; although most elite goalies strive to be competent with a traditional wood stick when given the chance (Junior & Senior Leagues mostly). Having said that, the National Lacrosse League (NLL) only permits “field style” synthetic goalie sticks, so players need to determine their team and personal goals (short term & long term), choosing a stick accordingly.
    • If aspiring goalies are trying to make the transition from synthetic two-piece to one-piece wood, the best way to scaffold is to first use a wooden shaft with a synthetic head. In all circumstances, but especially during these stages of change, goalies should be spending as much time as any player (“runner”) “tweaking” their stick and ensuring that they are able to at the very least make mid-range passes.
    • If a goalie cannot throw effectively, it literally changes an opponent’s game plan and potentially their entire transition system (i.e. Full Floor Press = highly effective). Goalies need to be an offensive threat in transition, and highly effective goalies are able to amass upwards of double-digit (10+) assists, throughout the course of a season.
    • Habits/Routines/Tendencies (See Goaltending Drill #2):  A habit or tendency is an action or pattern of behaviour that is repeated so often that it becomes typical of somebody, whether they are aware of it or not.  Goaltenders and players alike need to consciously form as many good “habits” as possible in order to achieve long-term success in lacrosse.  Goaltending in particular, is the most mentally demanding position in the game of lacrosse.  Considering the amount of information that must be processed and the adjustments that must be made in split-seconds based on a multitude of different scenarios, it is good practice for goalies to form as many habits as possible thereby relying more on their muscle memory than anything else.  
    • Flopper/Reactionary/Reflex Goalies (See Goaltending Drill #8):  These goalies are usually smaller, quicker net-minders, who are all over the place (so to speak) in their crease, doing anything and everything to stop the ball.  Kids are usually full-fledged "floppers" until they begin to better understand the angles; with more advanced reactionary goalies generally using a combination of stand-up and reactionary.  That said, “floppers” tend to drop into butterfly-like manoeuvres more often, whereas a stand-up-like goalie would just play the percentages and trust their angles, which is generally preferred. 
    • Goalie Warm-Up/Game & Practice Preparation (See Goaltending Drill #1):  Goaltending is a high pressure, highly technical position that requires an extraordinary ability; critical to the success of a team.  Goalies need to be the most mentally and physically prepared players, in order for their team to be successful.  They should be conditioned for endurance and participate in conditioning drills just like players; their cardio-bouts should be continuous in nature, instead of intermittent (which is how the players should be conditioned) where possible; moreover, they should have a regimented static stretching routine, due to the flexibility requirements of the position (also for injury prevention).  
    • Goalies need to spend significant time focusing mentally, and also getting physically “prepared” in the “informal & formal warm-ups.” Players/teammates should be attuned to the needs of the goalie during a warm-up and be prepared to purposely hit the goalie on their first couple of shots, or until the goalie or team captain indicates otherwise. Coaches need to protect their goalies in this regard and be sure to enforce simple team rules. Players need to warm-up their sticks as well, but the confidence and readiness of the goalie trumps any player (especially beginner goalies who may be scared of the ball).
    • Players have all week to get their sticks ready, while goalies have comparatively less time to “take shots” (practice) and get “in the zone.”
    • Should the ball move to the crease position, goalies need to “feel for their post” on the short-side, in order to ensure that no shots are able to get in the net along the post.
    • This concept also holds true as a good landmark for repositioning and comfort within the goalie "triangle." When the ball is at the “shooter ball position,” goalies should also still be able to reach the post with their glove hand at arm’s length.
    • They should hold their goalie stick in their dominant hand (right = regular, left = "goofy"), just above the “goalie knob;” ideally with the hand that would be their top hand while passing (quicker transition: rebound control -> throwing position -> pass execution). The “stick hand” should be holding the shaft firm, halfway down the goalie’s thigh, tight to their body and they should be leaning on the stick slightly (positioned 3 to 6 inches in front of one’s feet); "dragging the stick" whenever moving.
    • The “shaft” of the stick should pass between one’s elbow and body, with the arm-pit becoming a lever in aiding with the movement of the stick; the rest of the shaft comes out behind the goalies shoulder.
    • The glove hand should then be placed beside the hip with one’s elbow slightly bent creating an "arm triangle" that covers up the “six-hole,” otherwise used to reach to save low perimeter shots.
    • In its entirety, described above is the "goalie stance," which is where most of the bad habits goalies develop will lie.
    • Standing Big/Squaring Up/"Bread Basket":  Goalies should do their best to stand as big (wide) as possible; with their glove hand by their hip and elbow bent at approximately 90° and flared out to their side ("arm triangle").  Their stick hand should be holding the stick comfortably “between their legs,” flat on the ground and 6-8 inches (15-20 centimetres) in front of their feet, with their elbow tight to their side. 
    • If a goalie gets hit in their chest protector with the ball while standing in this position it is otherwise known as getting hit in the "bread basket," with goalies cupping the "rebound" as best as possible.
    • Outside of the standard angles and staying square to the ball carrier, goalies also need to account for a players’ release point when shooting; there are an infinite number of release points, and goalies need to be aware that a player can fake a shot as well. Having said that, goalies will often “play the stick” and position themselves more towards the stick-handedness of the ball carrier (see “eyes of the stick”), especially if the ball-carrier “telegraphs” their true intentions or stays relatively stationary before shooting (i.e. in cases of very little offensive ball movement).
    • Repositioning (See Goaltending Drill #6):  It can take upwards of 20 seconds for an opposing teams offense to generate a quality shot, and with only 40-50 shots per game on average this means goalies spend the majority of the time “repositioning” without actually making a save. 
    • If ever in doubt of whether they are in proper positioning, goalies should "feel for posts," or otherwise look for landmarks in the arena, found during pre-game warm up.
    • Very small “shifts” in position are generally all that is required to reposition as the ball-carrier moves around, but during ball swinging steps can be much longer depending on the length and direction of the pass.
    • The goalie’s short-side arm/hip should also be as close to the post as comfortably possible, with their hand feeling for the post (as a guide) when repositioning during "ball movement."
    • “Goaltender communication” should be: concise (descriptive), trustworthy (intelligent), loud, positive (the majority of the time) and/or encouraging towards team camaraderie (developing pride).
    • Goalies should be able to anticipate the actions of the opponent better than anyone else on the team and be able to let their defense know if they are out of position, or if the ball is loose.
    • Players need to listen and follow the goalie requests!
    • As with “finishing a check” for a player, finishing the play if you’re a goalie means to track the ball until it is in your pads, otherwise “tracking rebounds” and always repositioning to the proper angle (all of which are the most important habits related to the position of a goaltender).
    • Whenever a player gets "in tight" with the ball, the goalie should be starring at the players stick, magnifying their focus and reading the body language of the shooter.
    • Mental Focus/Mental Toughness:  Regardless of defensive mistakes, spectators and players alike always seem to remember the goals.  Players and especially goalies, need to be “mentally tough” to both score and prevent goals, depending on their role, but a goalies' “mental focus” needs to be the best on the team.  First and foremost, they need to be fearless of the ball; which takes a special individual in itself.  In what is a highly individual position, it takes a courageous person to commit to the high levels of accountability placed upon the goaltender.  A goalie is regularly perceived as the player who is the difference between winning and losing the game.  
    • Coaches and teammates should be sensitive to the highs and lows goalies are experience, keeping interactions as positive as possible (coaches: 5 positive interactions for every 1 negative) and keeping the goalies confidence high.
    • Successful goaltenders need to have a “short memory,” being able to earnestly "re-focus" (see optimal level of excitement), control their emotions and concentrate on maintaining good habits, instead of getting discouraged by goals against. At the end of the day, goals are going to be scored in a lacrosse game; it is the timing of saves that is just as important as how many go in. Some games are quick-paced and lack defense at both ends of the floor, with the storyline becoming “who made the save when it counted?” A goalie that is composed during these sorts of clutch situations is more valuable than a goalie that plays good one game and terrible the next (inconsistent).
    • The expectation of any team is that their goalie will give them a chance to win the game; never will the goalie be held solely for responsible for a team losing. In order to put the team in the best position to win, goalies need to be highly proactive, strong communicators (see goalie communication) and have a thorough understanding of the game. Also, they need to be able to properly position themselves and the defense, in the best way possible in order to prevent goals against.
    • Goalies should “practice like they play” and treat every repetition as a threat; expecting teammates to shoot to score (be “ready”) and always being vocal with their defenders in drills involving the defense. The marker of a great goalie is consistency; undoubtedly this virtue is the product of high standards in regard to the mental focus and effort required to always be alert and in position (this alertness will deteriorate with fatigue).
    • Goalie’s Far-Side:  Along the “goal post” on the opposite side of the net that the ball is on (i.e. the goalie’s right post if it’s a “left-handed” player) is considered the “goalie’s far-side.”  The majority of shots that players take are generally directed toward the goalie’s far-side. 
    • Goalie’s Short-Side/“Pulling” The Ball:  Along the “goal post,” on the same side of the net that the ball is on (i.e. the goalie’s left post if it’s a left-handed player), is considered the “goalie’s short-side.”  When a player shoots to the “short-side,” it is also sometimes referred to as “pulling it” to the “short-side.”
    • Top Corners/“Top Cheese”/"Top Shelf":  Just inside the posts up to three inches below the “cross-bar;” near the “junction.”
    • Bottom Corners:  Located just inside the posts in the bottom of the net; up to three inches off the ground (most difficult save).
    • Five-Hole/“Between The Legs”:  Between the goalies legs; covered by the goalie stick (flat on the ground).
    • Six-Hole/7-Hole:  Underneath the goalie’s arms or along the post as low as the goalies knees; sometimes referenced to as “shooting at the hips.”  Some people also refer to this "opening" as the "7-hole," as it somewhat looks like the number "7" in it's orientation (if someone were to look at a diagram of a goalie in the net).
    • In order to consider all of these different factors in a matter of seconds, a goalie’s mental focus must one of their best qualities (“always be alert”), alongside having a thorough understanding of how lacrosse is played and the personnel being defended against. Goalies need to scout/study offensive specialists and know tendencies/patterns pertaining to a player’s shooting habits (shot selection), release points and body postures.
    • The importance of good eyesight must also not be underestimated, as the trick for goalies to avoid fakes is to always keep their “eye’s on the ball” while also being aware of body, shoulder and head movement. When a ball carrier is approaching an area that would be considered a quality shot, this means to keep their eyes on the “head” of a player’s stick and train oneself to watch the ball leave the stick before reacting (less likely to “bite” on fakes). BE PATIENT and wait out the shot fakes.
    • Sometimes the play develops so fast that all the goalie can do is make a desperation movement back to the “far” post with a reverse “lunge step” and/or stick swing toward the uncovered angle. When defending a potential quick stick off of a skip pass, goalies should be sure to stay on their feet and avoid the “half-butterfly,” which gives them a chance to get back into position if the player doesn’t quick stick the ball upon receiving the pass.
    • Usually a stand-up goalie style that likes to challenge plays best within a box zone, while reactionary style goalies prefer the diamond zone.
    • While making this manoeuvre the goalie’s foot should not be raised off of the ground and it should be kicked out and towards the ball. The other option on a low shot would be to drop into the half-butterfly, although a stand-up style is generally preferred.
    • The other option is to position this arm against their waist, forming an “arm triangle” (upper arm -> elbow -> lower arm).
    • Stick Saves/Stick-Side/Stick Swipe (See Goaltending Drill #1):  The stick hand is the hand that holds the goalie stick.  Goalies must learn to be active with this hand, keeping it loose and “ready” to react in anticipation to shots coming from both inside and out, left and right.  The majority of “stick saves,” however, come from goalie’s not moving their stick at all, keeping it low to the ground (flush) and in between one’s legs (five-hole) at all times (habits). 
    • Whether stepping (moving laterally) to the “stick-side” or “glove-side,” depending on the direction of the shot, the stick, leg & body should move together (as a unit).
    • Another stick maneouvre when the goalie feels a rebound bouncing at their feet is the behind-the-back sweep, or "swipe," whereby the goalie takes a step forward and swipes their stick behind their back with one hand, sweeping any stray balls away from the goal-line.
    • Lateral Steps/Lateral Movement/Leaning (See Loose Ball Drill #4):  The lateral step is used in anticipation of a player sweeping across the front of the net, defending a player that is open “in tight,” or during a quick change in "ball position."  The goalie should have their knees bent at all times, ready to step laterally with their whole body.  
    • Goalies need to keep their glove hand tight to their body, otherwise project it outward as they lean to the side or drop into the half-butterfly, in anticipation of the shot. These are the sort of movements that are usually made by a goalie that is reacting to “inside shots” in the “prime scoring area.”
    • Usually reactionary goalies are best at this manoeuvre, but all should beware not to move too late or the ball will be in the back of the net. Moreover, if the goalie flinches too early (lacking "disguise"), the ball carrier could recognize the tip-off and shoot to where the goalie is currently standing.
    • Goalies can also entice players to shoot far-side or short side by “faking a shoulder block” to one side of the net and then exploding in the opposite direction at the last second, depending on the reaction of the shooter (see give & take).
    • Whatever way they might be "leaning" toward, goalies should be sure to move their entire body and commit to their final movement. Be wary of beginner goalies being tempted to jump on high shots, which should be discouraged by the coach.
    • “Dropping” On Shots:  When goalies get tired they tend to drop their shoulders instead of maintaining an upright posture, which thereby exposes the top corners of the net.  Therefore, it is never a bad shot for a ball carrier to shoot for the top corners late in a game. Furthermore, goalies need to be wary of the reputation for “dropping” into a butterfly too early (fakes) and too consistently, because coaches/players will adjust and start shooting with more deception if they notice.  That said, dropping on shots can be advantageous when players telegraph their shots or otherwise when players are taking a shot-on-the-run.  
    • A “half-butterfly” is a large side “lunge” step, either towards the “short-side” or “far-side” of the net, where the goalie will slide onto their lead leg while keeping their shoulders up to cover the top of the net. Goalies should beware that the half-butterfly opens up the five-hole for a brief moment, so it should be used sparingly. Goalies need to be able to recover quickly if they commit to a half-butterfly, which can be risky if the offense is able to quick stick the ball from side-to-side.
    • Elite goaltenders know the tendencies of their opponents and the breakaway move they prefer (“scouting”). If a goalie has a good read on what they think a player will do, ideally they make their move last (i.e. give & take away), using quick reactions. Having said that, they also cannot wait too long where a player would able to score with a simple shot around the pipes, or last second improvisation.
    • At the end of the day, goalies are expected to save around half of the breakaway’s they are faced with, with any save they do make being highly advantageous in terms of momentum (also vice-versa in terms of transition goals).
    • Rebounds/Rebound Control/“Cupping” (See Goaltending Drill #1):  Rebounds and “rebound control” are a big part of a goalie’s job.  Intermediate/advance goalies should “battle” just as hard as anyone else around the crease and be aggressive (especially while short-handed) in order to obtain any sort of loose ball; also minimizing the amount of rebounds off of shots.  
    • Any loose balls around the crease should be scooped with 2 hands or picked up with the goalies hand; for loose balls outside of the crease, the goalie must be sure to have at least one foot in the crease while scooping, in order to avoid a "back in" call against.
    • Quality goaltender equipment and a goalies ability to cushion (corral) the ball after it hits their body (similar to a player having “soft hands”) or stick, goes a long way in terms of rebound control. With a shot that hits the goalies stick, the goalie should twist the stick slightly in the opposite direction of where it hits the stick in order to avoid stick "spinning," also in an attempt to corral the rebound. The action of “cupping” is the preferred method of controlling a high shot that is undoubtedly about to hit one’s “chest protector,” whereby a goalie drops their arms forward and absorbs the ball as it hits the chest protector, creating a sort of concave that effectively keeps the ball close by (instead of ricocheting into the corner or out of bounds).
    • They are free to run outside of their crease and play the ball where needed, even set a “goalie pick” as an opponent chases their teammate behind the net; but for the most part goalies are best to stay in their crease (especially beginners) instead of risking giving up an empty net goal (see 50/50 balls).
    • Goalie Pick:  At times after a loose ball scrum or rebound in the corner, a goalie’s teammate will obtain possession of the ball while an opponent chases them behind the net (higher likelihood during short-handed situations).  If the goalie is able to anticipate this play before it happens, they are able to then create a small lane behind the net (setting a pick), which allows their teammate to pass through before eventually bumping the chaser.  On a side note, some goalies will even take the liberty of trying to “body check” a player that goes behind the net, but only in desperation-type situations.
    • Goalie Outlet:  Goalies should spend 95% or more of any game within the confines of their crease, but there are certain instances when goalies coming out of the crease can be advantageous to their team; being an outlet for a teammate being pressured in the defensive zone is one of those times.  When a goalie comes out of their crease to “support the ball” they should run to the opposite side of the floor from where the ball is located (somewhere near “GLE” preferably) or behind the net; most notably during Full-Floor Pressure or in Ball Back Situations.
    • The greatest goalies play their “angles” well and also have superior "reactionary" ability; performing well against the best competition (clutch) and making timely saves when the team needs them most.
    • For beginners, rotate the goalies who are interested, and if none are interested, rotate all players through the position until one volunteers for the rest of the season.
    • Back-Up Goalies:  The second goalie on a team’s roster, who would go into the net if a particular situation arose, is referred to as the “back-up goalie.”  It is generally preferable to have a back-up goalie who plays a different style than the starting goalie (i.e. starting goalie = stand-up, back-up goalie = “flopper”), which can throw off the preparation of the other team and potentially interrupt their “momentum,” should the starting goalie get pulled.
    • Protect Your Goalie:  Losing a goalie to injury or for any other reason, is never a good situation for a team to be in.  Occasionally, a marquee goalie may be the target of erratic “crease dives,” which the other team will claim to be accidental, but in fact are attempts to “rattle” or injure the goalie.  In other instances, it can be a hard “body-check” on the goalie when they are outside of their crease.  Neither case should be tolerated or permitted without some sort of rebuttal, either on the spot or at a more advantageous time during the game. 
    • In most cases, taking a two-minute “roughing penalty” would be completely acceptable, while in others, a “fighting penalty” might be necessary. As an unwritten rule, it is the responsibility of the nearest teammate to come to the defense of their goalie, when needed.
    • When a player “dives” through the crease and hits the goalie, the defender that is “chasing” should also dive and land on this player.
    • Players that talk to the goalie in an inappropriate way also should get a “talking to,” or potentially “roughed up,” as it can drastically effect the momentum of the game if not addressed.
    • Pulling The Goalie/Chasing The Goalie/Changing The Goalie/Empty Net (See Playbook):  Generally, teams will pull their goalie at the end of a period in order to play 6-on-5, having the final possession with the shot clock turned off because there is less than 30 seconds left.  Teams will then usually start a set-play with around 8 seconds left on the game clock, and in that way, should the defending team somehow obtain the ball off of a rebound or turnover, they would then only be able to huck the ball from one end of the floor to the other.  
    • The most common time to “change the goalie” is when the other team has scored a number of consecutive goals, and clearly has the momentum. At this point, good coaches usually bring in the back-up goalie for a short or extended period of time (if they’re playing exceptionally well).
    • Reload:  During drill work at practice, when the ball supply is starting to run low, someone will usually call out “re-load” and coaches/players will then stop the drill and gather balls from the net or the other end of the floor (if half-floor).  This is usually a good time for goalies to switch during drills, otherwise when they are exhausted from lots of shots in a row, particularly when drills are only taking place at one end. 
    • Heat Management/Hydration/Water:  Lacrosse players are always at risk of over-heating; goaltenders especially, with the weight and insulating properties of their equipment.  Goalies NEED to communicate with the referees if they are getting hot or overheating and needs a water break (good refs will frequently make this offering).  Refs will generally stop the play on a “dead ball” and allow for a goalie break.  This can also be a strategic water break for the team as well, as it can slow down the pace of the game or momentum of the other team (acting as a time-out). 
    • Coaches must be wary of excessively hot days and should constantly promote proper “hydration” (water intake) protocols both on and off of the floor (every 2 drills or 15-20 minutes during practice).
    • On game days, utilizing electric fans on the bench and in the dressing room are great sources of “heat management;” iced towels and ice packs (bags) also work particularly well. Players should be prepared with spare garments and garments that promote heat dissipation, wherever necessary.